Jump to Semiconductors: band gaps, colors, conductivity and doping - Electrons and holes in semiconductors. Pure (undoped) semiconductors can conduct electricity when electrons are promoted, either by heat or light, from the valence band to the conduction band. Early history of the physics and chemistry of semiconductors-from doubts to fact in a hundred years. To cite this article: G Busch Eur. J. Phys. 10 Molten salts allow synthesis of 35 unknown 2D transition metal chalcogenides with many more possible. Index image showing ductile semiconductor · Research.


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Boron has only three valence electrons, and "borrows" one from the Si lattice, creating a positively charged hole that exists in a large hydrogen-like orbital around the B atom. This hole can become delocalized by promoting an electron from the valence band to fill the localized hole state.

Again, this process requires only 40—50 meV, and so at room temperature a large fraction of the holes introduced by boron doping exist in delocalized valence band states. As noted above, the doping of semiconductors dramatically changes their conductivity. For example, the intrinsic carrier concentration in Si at K is about cm The mass action equilibrium for electrons and holes also applies to semiconductors chemistry semiconductors, so we can write: There are three consequences of this calculation: The activation energy for conduction is only 40—50 meV, so the conductivity does not change much with temperature unlike in the intrinsic semiconductor The minority carriers in this case holes do not contribute to the conductivity, because their concentration is so much lower than that of the majority carrier electrons.

D: Band Theory of Semiconductors - Chemistry LibreTexts

Semiconductors chemistry, for p-type materials, the conductivity is dominated by holes, and is also much higher than that of the intrinsic semiconductor. Chemistry of semiconductor doping. Sometimes it is not immediately obvious what kind of doping n- or p-type is induced by "messing up" a semiconductor crystal lattice.

In addition to substitution of impurity atoms on normal lattice sites the examples given above for Siit is also possible to dope with vacancies - missing atoms - and with interstitials - extra atoms on sites that are not ordinarily occupied.


Some simple rules are as follows: For substitutions, adding an atom to the right in the periodic table results in n-type doping, and an atom to the left in p-type doping. In both cases, the impurity atom has one more valence electron than the atom for which it semiconductors chemistry substituted.

Anion vacancies result in n-type doping, and cation vacancies in p-type doping. Examples are anion vacancies in CdS1-x and WO3-x, both of which give n-type semiconductors, and copper vacancies in Cu1-xO, which gives a p-type semiconductor.

Li donate electrons to the semiconductors chemistry resulting in n-type doping.

Chapter 12.6: Metals and Semiconductors

Interstitial anions are rather rare but would result in p-type doping. Sometimes, there can be both p- and n-type dopants in the same crystal, for example B and P impurities in a Si lattice, or cation and anion vacancies in a metal oxide lattice.

In this case, the two kinds of doping compensate each other, and the doping type is determined by the one that is semiconductors chemistry higher concentration.

A dopant can also be present on more than one site. For example, Si can occupy both the Ga semiconductors chemistry As sites in GaAs, and the two substitutions compensate each other.


Si has a slight preference for the Ga site, however, resulting in n-type doping. Semiconductors chemistry equilibrium, the Fermi level EF is uniform throughout the junction.

EF lies just above the valence band on the p-type side of the junction and just below the conduction band on the n-type side. Semiconductor p-n junctions are important in many kinds of electronic devices, including diodestransistors, light-emitting diodes, and photovoltaic cells.

To understand the operation of these devices, semiconductors chemistry first need to look at what happens to electrons and holes when we bring p-type and n-type semiconductors together. The presence of these uncompensated electrical charges creates an electric field, the built-in field of the p-n junction.


The region that contains these semiconductors chemistry and a very low density of mobile electrons or holes is called the depletion region. The electric field, which is created in the depletion region by electron-hole recombination, repels both the electrons on the n-side and holes on the p-side away semiconductors chemistry the junction.

This process is called doping. Doping, or adding impurities to the lattice can change the electrical conductivity of the lattice and therefore vary the efficiency of the semiconductor.