The interactions of plants with microbes both in the soil and above ground shoot are of great importance for the growth and productivity of plants in agricultural. Of the many ways that plants interact with microbes, three aspects are highlighted in this issue: interactions where the plant benefits from the. Microbes interact with plants at many different levels and plants have learned to deal with or even exploit the available microbes. While some microbes impact.
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In these interactions, plants serve as sheltered habitats for the microorganisms that may colonize apoplastic plant microbe interaction, plant surface areas or areas adjacent to the plant surface, e.
In addition to a sheltered habitat and a future source of nutrients that are liberated upon plant death, many plants release compounds that attract and feed the associated microbes.
The associated microbes may in turn secrete compounds that favor plant growth, they may make the plant more resistant to abiotic or biotic stress, or they may defend the plant against more malignant microbes. With the development of techniques to identify and quantify the microbial diversity associated with plants, we begin to grasp the immensity of the interactions to which plants are exposed.
Complete microbiomes can be evaluated that are associated with different parts of the plant, and microbes can be found wherever they are looked for.
Special Issue "Plant Microbe Interaction 2017"
Since functional effects of these multidimensional interactions are difficult to disentangle, most researchers stick to easier tractable and less complex interactions that can be experimentally tackled.
This holds also true for researchers plant microbe interaction plant—microbe interactions that are clearly negative for the plant and result in the development of plant disease symptoms.
Research on these negative interactions focuses at identifying microbial and plant factors necessary for establishment of the disease and elucidating their molecular function.
The sum of all these research endeavors will lead to an increased, detailed and more and more complex understanding of the multidimensional interactions that plants keep with microbes. In this issue, three aspects of plant—microbe interaction are highlighted: In twelve original research articles and two reviews, we will learn about different interactions where the plant profits from the interaction with the microbes, where it suffers, and where it serves as a habitat for a microbial community.
Below, we will summarize the most interesting highlights.
Plant–Microbe Interaction 2017—The Good, the Bad and the Diverse
They grow filamentously and can colonize not only soil but also roots and aerial parts of the plants; they are active producers of antibiotics and can save the plant from attack by more dangerous bacteria; and they produce volatile organic compounds that give rise to the typical fragrance of fresh forest soil.
As such, they qualify as biocontrol agents in several cropping systems, and strains serving as antagonists of various plant pathogens can be identified. The versatile Streptomyces species also have plant growth-promoting abilities and can be used as biofertilizers.
plant microbe interaction
Because of their ability to form spores and survive adverse conditions plant microbe interaction the soil, they are also more competitive than other microbes. In addition, they produce various lytic enzymes that can break down insoluble organic polymers and generate nutrients that can be used by plants.
These fascinating plant microbe interaction of Streptomyces species are nicely summarized in the review by Vurukonda et al.
Plant growth-promoting bacteria can also be used in phytoremediation of metal-contaminated soils. The bacteria were shown to grow endophytically in the root and resulted in a significantly increased plant microbe interaction uptake into the plant.
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In presence of the bacteria, the plant showed a decrease of metal-induced stress and an improved growth. Thus, these plant growth-promoting bacteria can help both in phytoremediation and in sustainable biomass production [ 2 ].
Plant growth-promoting bacteria can induce drought and salt tolerance. Two articles study the effect of plant growth-promoting bacteria on perennial ryegrass Lolium perenneplant microbe interaction important cool-season perennial grass species for pasture, forage and turf with high yield and good turf quality such as a dense root system, superior tillering, and regeneration ability.
Frontiers in Plant Science | Plant Microbe Interactions
plant microbe interaction Unfortunately, this popular grass species is not very tolerant to drought or to high salinity. In addition, they sequenced the bacterial genome and identified several genes putatively involved in plant growth-promoting traits and abiotic stress tolerance [ 4 ].
They determined the symbiotic efficiency of 17 cotton varieties to R. The best one, Lumian 1, was used for a two-year field trial. plant microbe interaction
The mechanisms utilized by PGPR to suppress diseases and herbivores as well as priming of plants, have been critically studied and reviewed over the last few years Saraf et al. PGPR may either directly inhibition of metabolism or indirectly through competition reduce plant microbe interaction pathogen infections.
Production of cyanogenic compounds have also been shown to repel both root and leaf herbivores.