What is the issue? Is continuous cardiotocography (CTG) to electronically monitor babies' heartbeats and wellbeing during labour better at. Download scientific diagram| An external fetal cardiotocography (CTG) monitor from publication: Non-Invasive Fetal Heart Rate Monitoring Techniques: Review. Jump to Updated FIGO Intrapartum Fetal Monitoring Guidelines - FIGO has recently modified the guidelines on intrapartum fetal monitoring,  ‎Method · ‎Interpretation · ‎Periodic or episodic · ‎FHR pattern classification.


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The review included six studies with all of the women at increased risk of complications.

Cardiotocography patterns and risk of intrapartum fetal acidemia.

Four of the studies were undertaken in the s and two in the late s. The included studies were not of high quality. However, CTG monitors, associated technologies and the way midwives and obstetricians care for women with different complications in pregnancy have changed over the years.

This means that more studies are needed now to fetal cardiotocography if outcomes for babies at increased risk of complications can be improved fetal cardiotocography antenatal CTG, particularly computerised CTG.

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To assess the effectiveness of antenatal CTG both traditional and computerised assessments in improving outcomes for mothers and babies during and after pregnancy. Uterine activity may be defined as: Normal- less than or equal to 5 contractions in 10 minutes, averaged over a minute window Tachysystole- more than 5 contractions fetal cardiotocography 10 minutes, averaged over a minute window Baseline fetal heart rate[ edit ] The NICHD nomenclature [9] defines baseline fetal heart rate as: The baseline FHR is determined by approximating the mean FHR rounded to increments of 5 beats per minute bpm during a minute window, excluding accelerations and decelerations and periods of marked FHR variability greater than 25 bpm.

There must be at least 2 minutes of identifiable baseline segments not necessarily contiguous in any minute window, or the baseline for that period is indeterminate. In such cases, it may be necessary to refer to the previous minute window for determination of the baseline.

Abnormal baseline is termed bradycardia when the baseline FHR is less than bpm; it is termed tachycardia when the baseline FHR is greater than bpm. Its presence is reassuring in predicting an absence of metabolic acidemia and hypoxic injury to the fetus at the time it is observed.

Baseline FHR fetal cardiotocography is determined in a minute window, excluding accelerations and decelerations. Baseline FHR variability is defined as fluctuations in the baseline FHR that are irregular in amplitude and frequency.

The fluctuations are visually quantitated as the amplitude of the peak-to-trough in beats per minute.


Using this definition, the baseline FHR variability is categorized by the quantitated amplitude as: Absent- undetectable Minimal- greater than undetectable, but less than or fetal cardiotocography to 5 beats per minute Moderate- beats per minute Marked- greater than 25 beats per minute Accelerations[ edit ] The NICHD nomenclature [9] defines an acceleration as a visually apparent abrupt increase in fetal heart rate.

Late decelerations and severe variable decelerations increase the risk for intrapartum fetal metabolic acidemia fetal cardiotocography the same extent.

How to read a CTG | Geeky Medics

The combination of these decelerations and tachycardia was fetal cardiotocography with fetal cardiotocography highest rate of fetal metabolic acidemia.

We included 13 trials involving over 37, women. No new studies were included in this update. No data were found comparing no fetal monitoring with continuous CTG.

How to read a CTG

Overall, methodological quality was mixed. All included studies were at high risk of performance bias fetal cardiotocography, unclear or high risk of detection bias fetal cardiotocography, and unclear risk of reporting bias.

Only two trials were assessed at high methodological quality. Compared with intermittent auscultationcontinuous cardiotocography showed no significant improvement in overall perinatal death rate risk ratio RR 0.

There was no difference in cerebral palsy rates RR 1. Women were also more likely to have instrumental vaginal births RR 1.


There was no difference in the incidence fetal cardiotocography cord blood acidosis RR 0. Less cord blood acidosis was observed in women who had intermittent CTG, however, this result could have been due to chance RR 1.

Cardiotocography - Wikipedia

Data for low riskhigh riskpreterm pregnancy and high-quality trials subgroups were consistent with overall results. Access to fetal blood sampling did not appear to influence differences fetal cardiotocography neonatal seizures or other outcomes.

Most outcomes were graded as low quality evidence rates of perinatal death, cerebral palsy, caesarean sectioninstrumental vaginal births, and any pharmacological analgesiaand downgraded for limitations in design, inconsistency and imprecision of results.

The remaining outcomes fetal cardiotocography downgraded to moderate quality neonatal seizures and very low quality cord blood acidosis due to similar concerns over limitations in design, inconsistency and imprecision.